The Event File

The event files contain game descriptions using the Retrosheet scoring system. This page will describe the scoring system in sufficient detail to allow working with these full play-by-play descriptions.

The files containing the play-by-play data follow a naming convention. Each file has one team's home games and has a name of the form YYYYTTT.EVX where EVX may be EVA, EVN, EVF, or EVR for American, National, Federal, or Negro League games, respectively. In this format, YYYY is the four digit year and TTT is a three character team code. The zip archive downloaded contains a file named TEAMYYYY that contains the team codes and team names in the particular season. Each file contains the home games in chronological order for the specified team.

Files are ASCII text files consisting of a series of records. Each record is a single line starting with a type designator and ending with the DOS new line sequence (newline, carriage return characters).

For each game as many as sixteen different record types may be used. Each record type has a unique designator, which is followed by several fields separated by commas. These are discussed in detail below.

The record type is not considered to be a field and starts in column 1. Following the record type are the record fields which are separated from the record type and each other by commas ' , '.

Field data such as names are normally enclosed in double quotes ' " '. Commas used in quoted fields are not field separators.

Retrosheet player id. All players are represented by a code that is unique for each player. This 8 character code is constructed from the first four letters of the player's last name, the first initial of his common name, and a three digit number. If a player's last name is less than 4 characters long a dash "-" is used as a placeholder. Numbers starting with 0 are used for players appearing in games in or after 1983. Players completing their careers before 1983 are assigned numbers starting with 101.

joner002 is the Retrosheet player id for Ruppert Jones.

id Each game begins with a twelve character ID record which identifies the date, home team, and number of the game. For example, ATL198304080 should be read as follows. The first three characters identify the home team (the Atlanta Braves). The next four are the year (1983). The next two are the month (April) using the standard numeric notation, 04, followed by the day (08). The last digit indicates if this is a single game (0), first game (1) or second game (2) if more than one game is played during a day, usually a double header The id record starts the description of a game thus ending the description of the preceding game in the file.


version The version record is next, but is used only for file management internal to Retrosheet and can be ignored.


info There may be from 30 to 40 info records, each of which contains a single piece of information, such as the temperature, attendance, identity of each umpire, etc. The record format is info,type,data. Not every info type will be present for each game. For example, the left field and right field umpires are usually not specified for regular season games. The complete list of info record types is given below.

start and sub There are 18 (for the pre-DH era) or 20 (with the DH) start records, which identify the starting lineups for the game. Each start or sub record has five fields. The sub records are used when a player is replaced during a game. The roster files that accompany the event files include throwing and batting handedness information.

1. The first field is the Retrosheet player id, which is unique for each player.

2. The second field is the player's name.

3. The next field is either 0 (for visiting team), or 1 (for home team). In some games, typically due to scheduling conflicts, the home team (the team whose stadium the game is played in) bats first (in the top of the innings) and the visiting team bats second (in the bottom of the innings). In these games, contrary to "normal" games, start records for the home team ("1") precede start records for the visiting team ("0"). Similarly, the play codes pertaining to the home team ("1") precede the play codes pertaining to the visiting team ("0").

4. The next field is the position in the batting order, 1 - 9. When a game is played using the DH rule the pitcher is given the batting order position 0.

5. The last field is the fielding position. The numbers are in the standard notation, with designated hitters being identified as position 10. On sub records 11 indicates a pinch hitter and 12 is used for a pinch runner. When a player pinch hits or pinch runs for the DH, that player automatically becomes the DH, so no 'sub' record is included to identify the new DH.

Beginning in 2022, the starting pitcher may also be the DH. This is the "Ohtani rule" made necessary by the exceptional two-way performance of Shohei Ohtani. In such a case the pitcher will be listed in two different 'start' lines, one as DH (position 10) and the other as Pitcher (position 1).

start,richg001,"Gene Richards",0,1,7

play The play records contain the events of the game. Each play record has 6 fields after "play".

1. The first field is the inning, an integer starting at 1.

2. The second field is either 0 (for visiting team) or 1 (for home team).

3. The third field is the Retrosheet player id of the player at the plate.

4. The fourth field is the count on the batter when this particular event (play) occurred. Most games prior to 1988 do not have this information, and in such cases, "??" appears in this field.

5. The fifth field is of variable length and contains all pitches to this batter in this plate appearance and is described below. If pitches are unknown, this field is left empty with nothing in between the commas.

6. The sixth field describes the play or event that occurred.


A play record ending in a number sign, #, indicates that there is some uncertainty in the play. Occasionally, a com record may follow providing additional information. A play record may also contain exclamation points, "!" indicating an exceptional play and question marks "?" indicating some uncertainty in the play, "+" indicating a hard hit ball, and "-" for softly hit balls. These characters can be safely ignored.

com,"Not sure if PB, may have been wild pitch"

The event is the most complex of all the fields and is described in detail below.

badj "Batter adjustment". This record is used to mark a plate appearance in which the batter bats from the side that is not expected. The syntax is:

        badj,batter id,hand

        The expectation is defined by the roster file. There are two general cases in which this is used:

        1. Many switch-hitters bat right-handed against right-handed knuckle ball pitchers even though the default assumption is that they would be batting left-handed.

        therefore as an example:


        indicates that switch-hitter Bobby Bonilla was batting right-handed against a right-handed pitcher.

        2. Occasionally a player will be listed in a roster as batting "R" or "L" but will bat the other way.

        For example, Rick Dempsey batted left-handed 13 times in 1983. These plays are marked as:


padj "Pitcher adjustment". This record covers the unusual case in which a pitcher pitches to a batter with the hand opposite the one listed in the roster file. To date there are only two pitchers in our files who have done so. Greg Harris, a right-hander, pitched left-handed to two batters in 1995. Pat Venditte was routinely ambidextrous and pitched in a total of 61 games for six different teams from 2015 to 2020. The syntax is parallel to that for the badj record:

        padj,pitcher id,hand

        The expectation is defined by the roster file and an example is:


ladj "Lineup adjustment". This record is used when a team bats out of order. The syntax is:

        ladj,batting team,batting order position

        therefore as an example:


        indicates that the next batter is the one listed in the 4th spot in the order for the visiting team although some other player was expected to bat next based on the current lineup.

        Retrosheet has discovered quite a few cases of batting out of turn. You can see them in the Special Lists section: Batting Out of Turn.

        Note that every batting out of turn situation has its own character, including whether or not it is detected by the opposition and whether or not the incorrect batter makes an out or reaches safely.

radj "Runner adjustment". This record is used in games beginning in 2020 in which an extra inning begins with a runner on 2nd. The syntax is:

        radj,runner id,base

        therefore as an example:


        indicates that Justin Turner began the inning at 2nd base. Note that this record type could include other starting bases in the future.

presadj "Pitcher responsibility adjustment". This record was created to account for the varied patterns of charging runs to pitchers in innings with more than one pitcher. Modern rules are clear about how to assign the responsibility for inherited runners, but there was no formal rule about this before 1940. The rule was modified to the present form in 1950. Prior to 1940, the official scorer had broad discretion to assign runs in such situations and it is not surprising that there was much variation between scorers. Retrosheet tries very hard to have our files match the official record so it occasionally necessary to force the crediting in ways that would contradict modern rules. The syntax is:

        presadj,pitcher id,base occupied by relevant runner

        therefore as an example:


        indicates that relief pitcher Cicotte is responsible for the runner who begins the next play on second base. If there were multiple runners affected, there are separate presadj records for each runner.              The presadj records may appear any time after the pitcher in question enters, but before the affected runner(s) score.

data Data records appear after all records from the game. At present, the only data type, that is defined specifies the number of earned runs allowed by a pitcher. Each such record contains the pitcher's Retrosheet player id and the number of earned runs he allowed. There is a data record for each pitcher that appeared in the game.


com The final record type is used primarily to add explanatory information for a play. Although it may occur anywhere in a file, it is usually not present until after the start records. The second field of the com record is quoted.

com,"ML debut for Behenna"
If the comment begins with a "$", then that comment will appear in the narrative play by play account on the site.

There is a standard record ordering for each game. An id record starts the description of a particular game. This is followed by the version and info records. The start records follow the info records. The game is described by a series of play, sub and com records. A sub record is always preceded by a play NP (see below). data records follow the last play record for the game. A game description is terminated by an id record starting another game or the end of the file.

Info record types

Complete records are shown. info records are of two general kinds, game-related and administrative. The order of these records, which appear after the game id, may not be in the order shown below. Game-related info records are:

The home and visiting teams are specified by their Retrosheet team codes.


The date is given in conventional yyyy/mm/dd style:


The number record indicates if this is a single game (0), first game (1) or second game (2) if more than one game is played during a day, usually this is a double header:


The hometeam, date and number records duplicate the information in the id record.

Game starting time is given by the two records (0:00 and unknown indicate missing information):


Number of innings scheduled for this game. It is usually 9 of course, but in 2020 doubleheaders had scheduled 7-inning games.

info,innings,number where number is the scheduled length

Beginning in 2020 extra innings begin with a runner on base. This is termed a "tiebraker"

info,tiebreaker,base where base is the starting position of the runner.

Whether a game uses the DH rule or not is indicated in the "usedh" record.


The presence or absence of pitch information is given. For some games, the ball-strike counts of the plays are shown, but no pitch detail is provided. (pitches, count or none):


The official scorer (when the identity is known) is listed with an 8 character id.


Occasionally the home team will bat first. This was much more common prior to 1920, but does still happen currently in special situations and in those cases the following record will appear.


Each umpire and his position on the field are indicated individually by his Retrosheet ID. For games where umpires are stationed in the outfield, umplf and umprf are used. Retrosheet has umpire assignments for all games in history, except some games in 1979 in which replacement umpires were used. In the examples below, the absence of left and right field umpires is indicated by "(none)".


Various field conditions are given:


Values used for fieldcond are: dry, soaked, wet, unknown;
for precip: drizzle, none, rain, showers, snow, unknown;
for sky: cloudy, dome, night, overcast, sunny, unknown;
for winddir: fromcf, fromlf, fromrf, ltor, rtol, tocf, tolf, torf, unknown.

Temp(erature) is in degrees Fahrenheit with 0 being the not known value.

An unknown windspeed is indicated by -1.

The BGAME.EXE program outputs these fields using numeric codes:
FieldCond: 0 Unknown, 1 Soaked, 2 Wet, 3 Damp, 4 Dry
Precip: 0 Unknown, 1 None, 2 Drizzle, 3 Showers, 4 Rain, 5 Snow
Sky: 0 Unknown, 1 Sunny, 2 Cloudy, 3 Overcast, 4 Night, 5 Dome
WindDir: 0 Unknown, 1 ToLeft, 2 ToCenter, 3 ToRight, 4 LeftToRight, 5 FromLeft, 6 FromCenter, 7 FromRight, 8 RightToLeft
WindSpeed: 0 Unknown, 1 Known, other value is the wind speed

The length of the game in minutes and the attendance (0 used if these are not known) are given:

    attendance value=0 for 1st game of double-headers also

The game site is provided. The site symbols are defined in the file parkcode.txt:


Pitcher win, loss and save data are given as info records. The Retrosheet player id is used for identification. If no save is credited, the player id field is empty.


When it was used as an official statistic, game winning RBI credit is given:


If this information is unknown or a gwrbi was not credited, the data field is left empty or may simply be omittted.

A new info record type was introduced in 2023 describing the type of game.


The possible types are:
The gametype 'playoff' refers to tiebreaker playoffs (e.g., 1951 Dodgers-Giants, 1978 Yankees-Red Sox). Major-league baseball classifies these games as regular-season games, so 'playoff' should be thought of as a subset of 'regular'. Similarly, 'preseason' is a subset of 'exhibition'.

info records that pertain to how the game account was obtained and processed (administrative data) are:

info,edittime,2000/03/31 11:00AM
info,howentered, info,inputprogvers,"version 7RS(19) of 07/07/92"
info,inputter,"C. Chestnut"
info,inputtime,1995/02/07 9:01PM
info,translator,"C. Chestnut"

There is an obsolete administrative record in some older games: "info,howentered" that indicated if the plays were entered in chronological sequence (the normal pattern) or by team, meaning all plays for visitors followed by all plays for the team. This record is no longer supported and should be ignored.

The pitches field of the play record

synopsis: play,inning,home/visitor,player id,count,pitches,event

The fifth field, pitches, is a string of variable length and contains all pitches to this batter in this plate appearance. Most Retrosheet games do not have pitch data and consequently this field is blank for such games.

    +  following pickoff throw by the catcher
    *  indicates the following pitch was blocked by the catcher
    .  marker for play not involving the batter
    1  pickoff throw to first
    2  pickoff throw to second
    3  pickoff throw to third
    >  Indicates a runner going on the pitch
A automatic strike, usually for pitch timer violation B ball C called strike F foul H hit batter I intentional ball K strike (unknown type) L foul bunt M missed bunt attempt N no pitch (on balks and interference calls) O foul tip on bunt P pitchout Q swinging on pitchout R foul ball on pitchout S swinging strike T foul tip U unknown or missed pitch V called ball because pitcher went to his mouth or automatic ball on intentional walk or pitch timer violation X ball put into play by batter Y ball put into play on pitchout

The event field of the play record

The sixth field, event, describes the play which occurred. This field is variable in length and has three main portions which define the Retrosheet scoring system.

The first part of an event is a description of the basic play.

The second part is a modifier for the first part and is separated from it with a forward slash, "/". In fact, there may be more than one modifier. A typical use of modifiers is to specify hit locations. For example, "D8/78" indicates a double fielded by the center fielder on a ball hit to left center. A complete list of modifiers excepting hit locations is given below. When more than one modifier is used, each is introduced by a "/".

The third part describes the advance of any runners, separated from the earlier parts by a period. A successful advance is indicated by a dash, "-". An out made while advancing is indicated by an X. 2-3 indicates a runner has advanced from second to third on the play. 1X2 indicates the runner was out at second advancing from first. If a base runner is not listed as advancing he remains on the base he was on. In some cases lack of advance is indicated explicitly by an advance starting and ending on the same base such as 3-3 . When put outs are made on base runners the advance field indicates fielding data and errors if they occur. See below for a complete description for advances. Note that any advances after the first are separated by semicolons.

For example, the event "S9/L9S.2-H;1-3" should be read as: single fielded by the right fielder, line drive to short right field. The runner on 2nd scored (advanced to home), and the runner on first advanced to third.

Many event descriptions require information in the form of numbers. The meaning of a particular number depends on where it appears in the event. For the descriptions that follow the following notation will be used:

Fielders will be represented by a number in the range 1 (pitcher) to 9 (right fielder) using a dollar sign, "$". When two $ symbols are used, $$, this is understood to mean a sequence of two or more fielders.

Bases are represented by a percent sign, "%", representing one of five characters, 1, 2 and 3 for first through third; B or H for home. B is used when a batter advance must be explicitly given. Scoring is indicated by an advance that reaches home, H.

Many examples of plays scored using the Retrosheet system will be given in this document. For some interesting and extreme cases check the Retrosheet strange and unusual plays listing.

The example plays have been chosen to illustrate how events are coded. Some of these events are exceedingly rare.

There is occasionally more than one event for each plate appearance, such as stolen bases, wild pitches, and balks in which the same batter remains at the plate. On these occasions the pitch sequence is interrupted by a period, and there is another play record for the resumption of the batter's plate appearance.

For purposes of description, it is convenient to separate the event types into two categories: those involving the batter at the plate and base running plays that do not involve the batter.

Events made by the batter at the plate

$ A single fielder represents an unassisted out made by the specified fielder. Modifiers can be added to indicate the batted ball trajectory: G for ground ball, L for line drive, P for pop up, F for a fly ball BG for bunt grounder, BP for bunt pop up. The ball trajectory code may be followed by a hit location code.

indicates a fly ball caught by the center fielder in left center field.

A sacrifice fly is indicated by the modifier SF following a fly out play. The runner scoring because of the sacrifice is coded in the advance part of the play.


In the case that a fielder makes an unassisted out on a ground ball a modifier G follows the event.

indicates an unassisted out made by the first baseman with the runner on second advancing to third.

$$ Strings of two or more fielders as an event specify a ground out where the put out is credited by the last fielder in the string. Other fielders are credited with assists.

indicates a ground ball out at first on a ball fielded by the shortstop.

More than one player can touch the ball before an out is made. In this case, the pitcher has deflected the ball before the second baseman threw to first base.

If the putout is made at a base not normally covered by the fielder the base runner, batter in this example, is given explicitly.

Force outs are indicated by adding the FO modifier and indicating the base runner forced.

The runner on first is forced at second by a throw from the third baseman to the second baseman. The runner on third scores and the batter is safe at first. The explicit advance indicated for the batter is optional. A second modifier is used to indicate the batted ball trajectory and location.

With the addition of a SH modifier this form is used to indicate sacrifice hits or bunts that advance a runner.


$(%)$ $$(%)$ Events of this form are used to code grounded into double plays.

indicates a grounded into double play. The parenthesized 1 indicates the base runner on first was the initial out on the play. The GDP modifier is followed by a another / and a hit type and location.

An unassisted ground ball out by the second baseman starts this double play.

$(B)$(%) followed by the modifier LDP is used to indicate a lined into double play.

indicates a line drive out to the center fielder with the runner on second doubled up.

indicates an unassisted double play by the first baseman who fielded the line drive and caught the runner off first base.

The double play notation can be extended in obvious ways to describe triple plays.


Note: the double digit combination 99, which cannot arise in play, is used to code unknown plays including forms that otherwise describe force outs and the double plays. Additional fielders in the double play are assigned 9. No assist or putout credits are given.

C/E2 codes catcher interference. Implicitly, the batter is awarded first unless overridden by an advance indicating otherwise. A redundant B-1 is allowed.


C/E1 or C/E3 are used when the pitcher or first baseman are called for interfering with the batter putting him on first without being charged with an at bat. In these cases C is interpreted as interference by the fielder specified following the E, not the catcher.

S$ single
D$ double
T$ triple
A hit (excepting a home run) is indicated by one of S, D and T optionally followed by the fielder, $, initially handling the ball. If more than one fielder handles the ball the appropriate sequence of fielders is given. The fielder designation is omitted if that information is not known. The batter advance to the designated base is implicit.

is a minimal coding of a single showing that the left fielder first handled the ball. The ?? in the count field indicates the count at the time of the hit is unknown.

codes a bases loaded double fielded by the left fielder, a modifier showing the hit location code and advances for each of the base runners.

describes a triple to right field, a hit location and a runner on second scoring.

DGR is the code for a ground rule double. No fielding player is specified.


E$ (or $E$) is the code for an error allowing a batter to get on base. The fielder making the error is given by $. The batter advance to first is implicit but may be given explicitly.

indicates a throwing error (modifier "/TH") error on the pitcher with the runner on first advancing to third. The batter advance to first is implicit.

indicates a fielding error by the first baseman. In this case the batter advance to first has been explicitly given.

If the "E" is preceded by one or more numbers, these indicate fielders who were credited with assists on the play, e.g., 3E1 would indicate an assist for the first baseman and an error on the pitcher (presumably for dropping the first baseman's toss at first base).

FC$ Fielder's choice. $ is the fielder first fielding the ball. The batter advance to first is understood if it is not given explicitly.

The third baseman fielded the ball and threw home in time to retire the runner attempting to score. The batter was safe at first.

The first baseman fielded the ball and attempted to throw an unspecified runner out. No outs were made and the batter is safe at first.

Note that even though force outs are considered fielder's choices, the notation distinguishes between force outs and non-forced fielder's choices.

FLE$ Error on foul fly ball.


H or HR is the code for a home run leaving the park. The location modifier can be used to indicate where the ball left the playing field.

indicates a solo home run to left field.

shows a home run to center field with the runners on first and second scoring.

H$ or HR$ indicates an inside-the-park home run by giving a fielder as part of the code.


HP Batter hit by a pitch. The batter advance to first is implicit. Other advances are given if needed.


K Strike out


A dropped third strike with a putout at first base is given by the event K23.

K+event On third strikes various base running play may also occur. The event can be SB%, CS%, OA, PO%, PB, WP and E$.

A passed ball on strike three allowed the runner on first to go to second.

An explicit batter advance is given when he reaches first on a third strike miscue. An
alternative notation for WP and PB is given below.

Of course, a base running event can occur when the third strike is dropped.

NP no play. This event is used as a marker when substitutions are made.

sub,kutcr001,"Randy Kutcher",1,5,8

I or IW intentional walk
W walk. In both cases base runner advances are given if needed. The batter advance to first base is implicit.



W+event, IW+event. On ball four various base running plays may also occur. The event can be SB%, CS%, PO%, PB, WP and E$.

The fourth ball was a wild pitch allowing the runner on second to advance.

Base-running events not involving the batter

The player specified in these plays is the batter at the plate, not the base runner or runners affected by the play.

The play pitches and count fields (if given) are for the batter at the time of the event. Unless the event is a inning or game ending out it will be followed by another event listing the batter.

BK indicates a balk.


CS%($$) is the event code for caught stealing. The bases, %, for this play are 2,3 and H. The fielding data, $$, is considered part of the play. Other advances may be given.



The error negates the out with the advance field indicating a two base advance on the play.

DI is the defensive indifference code and is given when there is no attempt to prevent a stolen base. The advance field specifies which base the runner went to.


OA is coded for a base runner advance that is not covered by one of the other codes. A comment may be given explaining the advance.

com,"Thompson out trying to advance after ball eluded catcher"

PB passed ball
WP wild pitch. In both cases the catcher is unable to handle a pitch and a base runner advances.



PO%($$) picked off of base % (1, 2 or 3) with the ($$) indicating the throw(s) and fielder making the putout.

indicates the runner on second was out by a pick off throw from the pitcher to second baseman.

shows an attempt at a pick off at first with the first baseman committing an error that allows the runner to advance to second. The presence of the error (E3) negates the out normally associated with the pickoff play.

POCS%($$) picked off off base % (2, 3 or H) with the runner charged with a caught stealing. The ($$) is the sequence of throws resulting in the out.


SB% is the event code for a stolen base. The bases, %, for this play are 2,3 and H.


show double steals, second and third in one case, second and home in the other.

Play modifiers and explanations

Each modifier is preceded by / in a play record. As always, % indicates one the four bases and $ indicates a fielder.

AP    appeal play
BP    pop up bunt
BG    ground ball bunt
BGDP  bunt grounded into double play
BINT  batter interference
BL    line drive bunt
BOOT  batting out of turn
BP    bunt pop up
BPDP  bunt popped into double play
BR    runner hit by batted ball
C     called third strike
COUB  courtesy batter
COUF  courtesy fielder
COUR  courtesy runner
DP    unspecified double play
E$    error on $
F     fly
FDP   fly ball double play
FINT  fan interference
FL    foul
FO    force out
G     ground ball
GDP   ground ball double play
GTP   ground ball triple play
IF    infield fly rule
INT   interference
IPHR  inside the park home run
L     line drive
LDP   lined into double play
LTP   lined into triple play
MREV  manager challenge of call on the field
NDP   no double play credited for this play
OBS   obstruction (fielder obstructing a runner)
P     pop fly
PASS  a runner passed another runner and was called out
R$    relay throw from the initial fielder to $ with no out made
RINT  runner interference
SF    sacrifice fly
SH    sacrifice hit (bunt)
TH    throw
TH%   throw to base %
TP    unspecified triple play
UINT  umpire interference
UREV  umpire review of call on the field

Event advances.

In addition to base runner movements, the advance portion of an event indicates fielding, errors and has the indicators indicating if a run is unearned and if an RBI is or is not credited.

Bases are represented by one of five characters, 1 for first, 2, 3 and B or H for home. B is used when a batter advance must be explicitly given. Scoring is indicated by a successful advance that reaches home, H.

Separate advances are given for each runner on base and are separated by a semicolon, ";". When more than one runner advance is given for a play they are ordered starting with the runner on third base and ending with the batter.

Advances may include additional information in the form of one or more parameters specified as a parenthesized strings of characters. When more than one parameter is given on an advance they are individually parenthesized.

A successful advance is given in the form 1-2. The dash "-" indicates a successful advance. Multiple base advances are indicated with the same notation: B-2, 1-3, 1-H, 2-H.


A runner put out at a particular base is indicated by the "X": 2X3, 1XH. When a runner is out the advance gives the fielding information as a parameter specifying fielders. The last fielder gets credit for the put out and the others get assists.




Fielding errors are indicated by including an E in the parameter following an advance. The fielder following the E is charged with the error.

Following a second baseman error the batter is safe at second. The error indicator negates the out. The left fielder is credited with an assist.

The parameter in this play attributes a throwing error to the third baseman. A base indicator may follow TH, TH2 for example.

Parameters are used to indicate if a run is unearned (UR) and if RBI is to be credited (RBI) or not (NR), (NORBI). When these parameters are not present, normal rules are followed.

The run scored on the passed ball is not credited as an RBI to the batter.

Three parameters are given on the 2-H advance. The first indicates a second baseman throwing error, the second indicates it is an unearned run and the third indicates no RBI.

In this play an RBI is given to the batter.

Interference can be indicated with an advance parameter. An alternative way of writing this is (5/INT).

com,"$Gonzalez out for grabbing coach on way back to 3B"

Team unearned runs are indicated by TUR in cases with more than one pitcher in the inning and the current pitcher is to be charged with an earned run.


A U appearing in a fielding sequence indicates the fielder handling the ball is unknown.

In the 8U3 sequence most likely the U is the shortstop or second baseman.
This notation is present in older files, but is no longer routinely used.

Advance parameters provide an alternative way of indicating wild pitches and passed balls.


Replay Instant replay of home run calls was instituted on 8/28/2008. It was expanded at the start of the 2014 season to include many other types of plays. For a more complete explanation and list all replays, see the following two pages. Each time the replay system is used, a slash tag is added to the play string. This will be /UREV for an umpire-initiated review and /MREV for a manager challenge. Immediately after that play there will be a comment record with details of the replay/challenge. The fields in this string are: com,"replay,inning,Batter ID,Batter Team ID,Umpire ID,Ballpark ID,Reason,Reversed,Initiator,Team,Type Code" Inning: inning in which the replay occurred Batter ID: batter for the replay instance (not necessarily the player involved in the replay) Batter Team ID: the team at bat for the replay Umpire ID: crew chief's ID Ballpark ID: the ballpark in which the game was played Reason (home run replay only): O - Over the fence F - Fair/foul I - Fan interference Reversed: Y or N Initiator: I (home run instant replay, 2008-13), U (umpire, 2014-present), M (manager, 2014-present) Team: team which challenged (only for M initiator) Type code: Code,Desc H,Home run G,Grounds rule N,Fan interference S,Boundary call C,Force play A,Tag play O,Fair/foul (outfield) T,Trap play (outfield) I,Hit by pitch M,Timing play B,Touching a base R,Passing runners K,Record keeping L,Multiple issues P,Home plate collision X,Other
Ejections Each time someone is ejected by an umpire, there will be multiple comments about the incident. This ejected person could be a player, coach, manager, trainer, mascot or fan. The first line will contain details in the following record format. com,"ej,Ejectee,Job Code,Umpire ID,Reason" Ejectee: the ID of the person ejected Job Code P - Player M - Manager C - Coach T - Trainer N - Non-uniformed person Umpire ID: the umpire who ejected the person Reason: Short description We have made an effort to standardize the text used in the reason field. All following comments with be text describing the incident. It is most usual for it to be as simple as this. com,"Babe Ruth ejected by HP umpire Tommy Connolly" However, there are many ejections with more detailed text describing the incident.
Umpire changes during games Occasionally, an umpire will be injured or develop an illness during a game. When there are changes to the umpire alignment during a game, there will be multiple comments with standardized fields to describe the change. com,"umpchange,Inning,Position,Umpire ID" umpchange: standard text Inning: the inning in which the change took place Position: umphome ump1b ump2b ump3b umplf umprf This is the position with the new umpire Umpire ID: The umpire who changed positions. It is "(none)" if the position becomes vacant. These records are usually followed by a comment containing a text description of the reason.
Protests When a manager protests an umpire ruling to the league office, a comment is added to the game to indicate the details of that protest. This comment is usually at the start of the game. com,"Protest=Code" Code P - unidentified team V - disallowed protest by visiting team H - disallowed protest by home team X - upheld protest by visiting team Y - upheld protest by home team Usually, there is a detailed comment at the spot in the game where the protest occurred.
Suspensions When a game is suspended by weather or other conditions, a comment is added to the game to indicate the details of the suspension. This comment is usually at the start of the game. com,"Suspend=YYYYMMDD,ParkID,Vis,Home,Outs" YYYYMMDD - completion date ParkID: if the game was resumed in another park from where it started Vis - visitor score at time of suspension Home - Home score at time of suspension Outs - Length of game in outs at time of suspension

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